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Pome and stone fruit aphids

Marcos Miñarro

Regional Research and Agro-food Development Service (SERIDA) of Asturias, Spain

Over 4,000 species of aphids have been described worldwide and can be recognized through several common features. They are small insects with a characteristic piercing/sucking mouthpart that they use to puncture plant vessels and extract the sap. They have asexual reproduction known as parthenogenesis that allows them to produce offspring without the need for fertilization. This enables rapid population growth, making them potentially highly destructive. Lastly, they tend to behave gregariously and form colonies, although they also have a high capacity for dispersion. Therefore, aphids are one of the biggest agricultural pests, and in pome and stone fruits, they can slow the growth of shoots, deform leaves and damage the quality of the fruit. Many species and most crops can still be controlled only by using synthetic insecticides. However, in the development of sustainable and integrated pest management strategies, plant protection products should be used only after alternatives such as varietal resistance or biological control. Certain 'organic' insecticides are also alternatives to synthetic products, although they are not always as efficient. Some aphid damage can be minimized by using resistant plant material that prevents infestation or simply tolerates the presence of aphids, although the use of resistant varieties is often curtailed by market demands. Predators and parasitoids contribute to reducing aphid populations and in many cases prevent infestation. Some of these natural enemies can be bought to release on plants, although it is far more practical and cheaper to attract them to plants naturally. The first step to achieve this is to reduce the use and spectrum of pesticides. The second is to create the right conditions for these enemies to thrive on the plants, such as places to rest and protect themselves, and supplementary and/or alternative sources of food. 

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In accordance with the Organic Law on the Protection of Personal Data 15/1999, of 13 December, Promotora de Exportaciones Catalanas SA (hereinafter PRODECA), whose address is Gran Via de les Corts Catalanes, 620, principal, 08007 Barcelona, with tax reg. no. NIF A58241316, declares that the images contained on the website www.smartfruitcongress.cat are included in a file belonging to PRODECA. The purpose of this file is the promotion, via its website, of the activities conducted by PRODECA – SmartfFruit IPM International Congress.

PRODECA guarantees that you may, at any time, exercise your right to access, rectify, cancel or oppose by writing to the aforesaid postal address, using the reference "PROTECCIÓN DE DATOS - SMARTFRUIT", or to the email address smartfruitcongress@smartfruitcongress.cat.

Specifically, to correctly exercise these rights you must clearly provide the following items in that communication:
- Name, surname(s) and photocopy of National Identity Document or Passport.
- Statement of the purpose of the request.
- Address for notification purposes.
PRODECA also declares that it reserves the right to delete from its website any content that it considers violates current and applicable legislation.

D’acord amb l’article 17.1 de la Llei 19/2014, la ©Generalitat de Catalunya permet la reutilització dels continguts i de les dades sempre que se'n citi la font i la data d'actualització i que no es desnaturalitzi la informació (article 8 de la Llei 37/2007) i també que no es contradigui amb una llicència específica.