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Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management of Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) Attacking Citrus

Roger, I. Vargas1, Grant T. McQuate1, Jaime C. Piñero2 i Luc Leblanc3

1 USDA-ARS, U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center, 64 Nowelo St, Hilo, HI 96720, USA, contact author, e-mail: roger.vargas@ars.usda.gov. 2 Cooperative Research and Extension, Lincoln University of Missouri, 900 Chestnut St. Jefferson City, MO, 65101, USA 3Department of Plant Environmental Protection Science, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, 96822, USA

Introduction: Economically important fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are among the most serious agricultural pests of soft fruits worldwide. Included in the family are some of the most destructive pests of citrus: Mediterranean fruit fly, the oriental fruit fly complex, Queensland fruit fly, Chinese citrus fruit fly, and peach fruit fly. Trade and movement of fruits and plants between countries have increased the spread of fruit flies throughout the world at an alarming rate, making fruit flies a global problem. For example, Two members of the Bactrocera dorsalis complex, Bactrocera invadens (Drew,Tsutsura, and White), a significant pest of a number of fruit commodities in Asia, is now found in Africa.

Introduction: Economically important fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are among the most serious agricultural pests of soft fruits worldwide. Included in the family are some of the most destructive pests of citrus: Mediterranean fruit fly, the oriental fruit fly complex, Queensland fruit fly, Chinese citrus fruit fly, and peach fruit fly. Trade and movement of fruits and plants between countries have increased the spread of fruit flies throughout the world at an alarming rate, making fruit flies a global problem. For example, Two members of the Bactrocera dorsalis complex, Bactrocera invadens (Drew,Tsutsura, and White), a significant pest of a number of fruit commodities in Asia, is now found in Africa. Carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock, a destructive pest of about 20 tropical and Asian fruits, is now found in South America.
Problem and Objectives: Conventional fruit fly control methods have relied heavily on liquid organophosphate insecticides. Overuse of these insecticides has been implicated with secondary pest outbreaks, negative effects on beneficial insects, environmental contamination, adverse effects on human health and resistance. A major goal of the Hawaii Fruit Fly Area-Wide Pest Management (AWPM) initiative has been to integrate environmentally friendly technologies into a comprehensive area-wide fruit fly management package (the 1-2-3 program) that is economically viable, environmentally compatible, and sustainable. Major components include: 1) sanitation, 2) GF-120®NF Naturalyte®Fruit Fly Bait, and 3) mass trapping.
Current and New Control Technologies: Specific components implemented into IPM systems for citrus varied by species. For example, components for Mediterranean fruit fly IPM included: 1) population monitoring, 2) sanitation by removing damaged fruit from orchards, 3) Biolure traps (6-10 per ha) and 4) GF-120®NF Naturalyte®Fruit Fly Bait applied weekly as spot sprays. Components for oriental fruit fly IPM included: 1)population monitoring, 2) sanitation, 3) GF-120®NF Naturalyte®Fruit Fly Bait applied weekly as spot sprays, and 4) methyl-eugenol traps (10-20 traps per ha) to reduce reproduction. New technologies developed, tested and registered through the AWPM program included: 1) replacement of cover sprays with spot sprays of GF-120®NF Naturalyte®Fruit Fly Bait, 2) use of bait stations, 3) new ME/C-L male annihilation dispensers, and 4) new monitoring dispensers. These components emphasize reduced risk products and could be implemented on organic farms.
Key words: Citrus, IPM, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) complex, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), Bactrocera minax (Enderlein), Bactrocera zonata (Saunders).

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In accordance with the Organic Law on the Protection of Personal Data 15/1999, of 13 December, Promotora de Exportaciones Catalanas SA (hereinafter PRODECA), whose address is Gran Via de les Corts Catalanes, 620, principal, 08007 Barcelona, with tax reg. no. NIF A58241316, declares that the images contained on the website www.smartfruitcongress.cat are included in a file belonging to PRODECA. The purpose of this file is the promotion, via its website, of the activities conducted by PRODECA – SmartfFruit IPM International Congress.

PRODECA guarantees that you may, at any time, exercise your right to access, rectify, cancel or oppose by writing to the aforesaid postal address, using the reference "PROTECCIÓN DE DATOS - SMARTFRUIT", or to the email address smartfruitcongress@smartfruitcongress.cat.

Specifically, to correctly exercise these rights you must clearly provide the following items in that communication:
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PRODECA also declares that it reserves the right to delete from its website any content that it considers violates current and applicable legislation.

D’acord amb l’article 17.1 de la Llei 19/2014, la ©Generalitat de Catalunya permet la reutilització dels continguts i de les dades sempre que se'n citi la font i la data d'actualització i que no es desnaturalitzi la informació (article 8 de la Llei 37/2007) i també que no es contradigui amb una llicència específica.