FEATURED INFORMATION

IPM on apple in Italy: towards sustainability

R.Bugiani & M.Boselli

Plant Protection Service – Emilia-Romagna Region. Italy

The apple production is well distributed in Europe with large production areas
accounting for a total acreage of 624000 ha. Apples are one of the most important fruit
crops in Italy, accounting for 2236000 tons (21,5% of European production). Apples are
susceptible to a wide range of pests. Orchard pests can be classified either according
to the part of the plant they harm or by the pest’s economic importance.

The apple production is well distributed in Europe with large production areas
accounting for a total acreage of 624000 ha. Apples are one of the most important fruit
crops in Italy, accounting for 2236000 tons (21,5% of European production). Apples are
susceptible to a wide range of pests. Orchard pests can be classified either according
to the part of the plant they harm or by the pest’s economic importance. Direct pests
feed directly on apple fruits, while indirect pests eat leaves, bark, and other parts of the
tree. Indirect pests reduce leaf area or kill branches, and can reduce yield or fruit
quality if present in large numbers. In the same way, fungal and bacterial diseases
affecting primarily fruits and leaves may cause severe damages and economic losses
since the fruit is usually unmarketable. Key pests cause major damage each year
unless controlled. Occasional pests become intolerable only irregularly, due to unusual
climate conditions. Secondary pests can be tolerated in small numbers and are usually
controlled with chemicals applied for key-pests and diseases during the season
Secondary pests can cause crop losses after broad spectrum insecticides kill beneficial
insects.
IPM is a program that coordinates pest management activities with other orchard
operations to achieve effective, economical, and long-term solutions to pest problems,
in a manner that is least disruptive to the environment.
The diseases and insect pests of apples occur at different times during the growing
season, depending on environmental and biological factors. Many strategies are used
to control these pests, and pesticides should be applied only when no other control
strategy is available. Many insect and disease problems can be prevented before they
occur. Once present, diseases and insects can be very difficult to control.
On apple, the Key-pests in Italy are codling moth, oriental fruit moth, leaf-roller
(A.pulchellana, Pandemis spp., Archips spp.), Rosy apple aphid and San Josè scale.
Key-diseases include apple scab and powdery mildew and Gloeosporium rot. Minor or
newly emergent diseases such as Alternaria alternata and Marsonnina apple blotch are
present only locally in some regions of northern Italy.
Integrated Production Guidelines are produced and updated every year. Agronomic
practices, orchard sanitation and recommended. Choice of fungicides and insecticides
is made taking into account efficacy, selectivity towards beneficials, toxicity
(formulations ranked as T and T+ are not allowed) and occurrence of resistant pest
populations.
Mating disruption technique and microbiological insecticides are applied effectively to
control codling moth where pest population is found resistant to some insecticide
chemical family.
Epidemiological forecasting models are important tools aiming to provide farmers and
field technicians with information in order to rationalize and better time chemical
applications during the season.
32
In the framework of a sustainable agriculture, mating disruption and pest and disease
forecasting models are important tools that meet the requirements of EU Directive
n.128/2009 and EU Reg n.1107/2009.

Featured highlights

Legal notice

In accordance with the Organic Law on the Protection of Personal Data 15/1999, of 13 December, Promotora de Exportaciones Catalanas SA (hereinafter PRODECA), whose address is Gran Via de les Corts Catalanes, 620, principal, 08007 Barcelona, with tax reg. no. NIF A58241316, declares that the images contained on the website www.smartfruitcongress.cat are included in a file belonging to PRODECA. The purpose of this file is to promote the activities conducted by PRODECA – SmartFruit IPM International Congress via its website.

PRODECA guarantees that you may, at any time, exercise your right to access, rectify, cancel or oppose by writing to the aforesaid postal address, using the reference "PROTECCIÓN DE DATOS - SMARTFRUIT", or to the email address smartfruitcongress@smartfruitcongress.cat.

Specifically, to correctly exercise these rights you must clearly provide the following items in that communication:
- Name, surname(s) and photocopy of National Identity Document or Passport.
- Statement of the purpose of the request.
- Address for notification purposes.
PRODECA also reserves the right to delete from its website any content that it considers violates current and applicable legislation.

D’acord amb l’article 17.1 de la Llei 19/2014, la ©Generalitat de Catalunya permet la reutilització dels continguts i de les dades sempre que se'n citi la font i la data d'actualització i que no es desnaturalitzi la informació (article 8 de la Llei 37/2007) i també que no es contradigui amb una llicència específica.

Data protection policy

In accordance with the Organic Law on the Protection of Personal Data 15/1999, of 13 December, Promotora de Exportaciones Catalanas SA (hereinafter PRODECA), whose address is Gran Via de les Corts Catalanes, 620, principal, 08007 Barcelona, with tax reg. no. NIF A58241316, declares that the images contained on the website www.smartfruitcongress.cat are included in a file belonging to PRODECA. The purpose of this file is the promotion, via its website, of the activities conducted by PRODECA – SmartfFruit IPM International Congress.

PRODECA guarantees that you may, at any time, exercise your right to access, rectify, cancel or oppose by writing to the aforesaid postal address, using the reference "PROTECCIÓN DE DATOS - SMARTFRUIT", or to the email address smartfruitcongress@smartfruitcongress.cat.

Specifically, to correctly exercise these rights you must clearly provide the following items in that communication:
- Name, surname(s) and photocopy of National Identity Document or Passport.
- Statement of the purpose of the request.
- Address for notification purposes.
PRODECA also declares that it reserves the right to delete from its website any content that it considers violates current and applicable legislation.

D’acord amb l’article 17.1 de la Llei 19/2014, la ©Generalitat de Catalunya permet la reutilització dels continguts i de les dades sempre que se'n citi la font i la data d'actualització i que no es desnaturalitzi la informació (article 8 de la Llei 37/2007) i també que no es contradigui amb una llicència específica.