FEATURED INFORMATION

Integrated pest management for cherry cultivation

Núria Cuch i Arguimbau

ADV de Fruita (Fruit Defence Group), Baix Llobregat. Catalonia

A wide range of pests and diseases affect cherry trees. The most common pests are the black cherry aphid (Myzus cerasi), the cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis cerasi), the spotted-wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii) the poplar lace bug (Monosteira unicostata) and the white peach scale (Pseudolacaspis pentagona). Other secondary pests are the goat moth (Cossus cossus) and the flatheaded rootborer (Capnodis tenebrionis).
The major diseases are monilia (Monilia spp.

A wide range of pests and diseases affect cherry trees. The most common pests are the black cherry aphid (Myzus cerasi), the cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis cerasi), the spotted-wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii) the poplar lace bug (Monosteira unicostata) and the white peach scale (Pseudolacaspis pentagona). Other secondary pests are the goat moth (Cossus cossus) and the flatheaded rootborer (Capnodis tenebrionis).
The major diseases are monilia (Monilia spp.), leaf spot (Cylindrosporium padi), shot hole (Stigmina carpophila), and several viral diseases. Other diseases include canker (Cytospora spp.), honey fungus (Armillaria mellea), white root rot (Roselinia necatrix), and silver leaf (Stereum purpureum).
The Baix Llobregat Fruit Defence Group performs health checks on 86 ha of cherry trees on small family farms using integrated pest management. In this area, 19 ha have been certified for integrated production and 26 ha for organic production for several years now.
Managing commercial organic cherry farms has allowed us to observe the changes that take place when certain plant protection products authorized for integrated production are no longer used, and has forced us to find alternatives tothese products.
Environmental biodiversity is extremely important to ensure there are as many beneficial organisms as possible.
Pests such as aphids and white peach scales can be controlled reasonably well if there are enough beneficial organisms in the habitat.
Effective aphid control requires a large number of beneficial organisms when populations are young, for which as many winter-flowering plants as possible are necessary.
Insecticides are not particularly conducive to large populations of beneficial organisms. However, insecticides have traditionally been used to control aphids and cherry fruit flies. When producers switch to organic farming they can no longer use these methods, so it is even more important to encourage beneficial organisms.
Cherry fruit flies can be  biologically controlled with yellow sticky traps and a chemical attractant (ammonium acetate), which yields good results. For aphid control it is vital to know their life cycle and to focus on the points where infestation begins, to make the control as localized as possible. The treatments that are authorized for organic farming have contact action  and short persistence. It is vital to catch initial outbreaks to prevent the population from spreading, when it becomes very difficult to control.
The arrival of the spotted-wing drosophila has complicated matters. This requires meticulous control in the run-up to harvest. Alternatives to insecticides such as mass trapping and specific beneficial organisms are currently being researched, but use of insecticides based on dimethoate and pyrethroids for integrated production and spinosad for organic production has increased. These insecticides have adverse effects on beneficial organisms that can help control white peach scales and poplar & lace bugs. Therefore, more research should be carried out to find alternatives to insecticides to control the spotted-wing drosophila.
Winter-flowering plants: Before the cherry buds open, the floor of this field is already full of Diplotaxis erucoides flowers and a hive of insect activity can be heard. If a postflowering insecticide is going to be used to kill cherry aphids, the flowers on the orchardfloor must firstly be removed to avoid killing off many beneficial organisms. In organic production, it is vital to keep these flowers to prevent aphid populations from growing.
Mass trapping of Rhagoletis: Mass trapping of Rhagoletis cerasi (a fly with striped

wings) with yellow sticky traps and ammonium acetate. Rhagoletis has only one generation per year. Trapping as many flies as possible for a few consecutive years reduces the population of the plot and mitigates damage

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In accordance with the Organic Law on the Protection of Personal Data 15/1999, of 13 December, Promotora de Exportaciones Catalanas SA (hereinafter PRODECA), whose address is Gran Via de les Corts Catalanes, 620, principal, 08007 Barcelona, with tax reg. no. NIF A58241316, declares that the images contained on the website www.smartfruitcongress.cat are included in a file belonging to PRODECA. The purpose of this file is the promotion, via its website, of the activities conducted by PRODECA – SmartfFruit IPM International Congress.

PRODECA guarantees that you may, at any time, exercise your right to access, rectify, cancel or oppose by writing to the aforesaid postal address, using the reference "PROTECCIÓN DE DATOS - SMARTFRUIT", or to the email address smartfruitcongress@smartfruitcongress.cat.

Specifically, to correctly exercise these rights you must clearly provide the following items in that communication:
- Name, surname(s) and photocopy of National Identity Document or Passport.
- Statement of the purpose of the request.
- Address for notification purposes.
PRODECA also declares that it reserves the right to delete from its website any content that it considers violates current and applicable legislation.

D’acord amb l’article 17.1 de la Llei 19/2014, la ©Generalitat de Catalunya permet la reutilització dels continguts i de les dades sempre que se'n citi la font i la data d'actualització i que no es desnaturalitzi la informació (article 8 de la Llei 37/2007) i també que no es contradigui amb una llicència específica.