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IPM strategies in olive growing in Catalonia

Jordi Mateu

Plant Health Department. DAAM. Generalitat of Catalonia

The olive is part of our culture and eating habits in Catalonia as one of the key ingredients of the Mediterranean diet. The result of this age-old history is a total of 49 genotypes in the olive bank of Catalan varieties, and olive growing covers an area of approximately 125,000 hectares. The geographic diversity of Catalonia is evidenced in a rich presence of five Protected Designations of Origin for olive oil.

A number of measures have been implemented via integrated pest management (IPM) to produce olive oil according to a quality model that reduces hazards to the environment and human health while attempting to protect crops from harmful organisms without lessening harvest yields.

The olive is part of our culture and eating habits in Catalonia as one of the key ingredients of the Mediterranean diet. The result of this age-old history is a total of 49 genotypes in the olive bank of Catalan varieties, and olive growing covers an area of approximately 125,000 hectares. The geographic diversity of Catalonia is evidenced in a rich presence of five Protected Designations of Origin for olive oil.

A number of measures have been implemented via integrated pest management (IPM) to produce olive oil according to a quality model that reduces hazards to the environment and human health while attempting to protect crops from harmful organisms without lessening harvest yields. IPM must be adapted to the variability in olive growing, bearing in mind the agroecosystem, as sensitivity to attack by harmful organisms depends on abiotic, biotic and cultural control factors. In broad terms, key factors are area, variety and planting system. 
In line with IPM principles in Catalonia, we have XEACAT, the Xarxa d’Estació d’Avisos Fitosanitaris de Catalunya (Catalonia Plant Health Warning Station Network). Its functions are to foster integrated action, experiment on the effectiveness and environmental impact of plant health products, develop new environmentally-friendly methods for pest control, issue plant health warnings to farmers and monitor harmful organisms that affect plants. This work is performed by technical personnel in the Plant Health Section (Servei de Sanitat Vegetal) with the cooperation of the Plant Defense Groups (Agrupacions de Defensa dels Vegetals). 
XEACAT focuses on the following pests and diseases that affect olives: The olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) is endemic to Catalonia and is usually considered to be the pest that most affects the crop. The second most important pest is the lepidopteran known as the olive moth (Prays oleae), especially in areas where there are numerous sensitive varieties, such as Empeltre, Fragua, Sevillenc, etc. Secondary pests are Saissetia oleae, Phloetribus scarabaeoides, Euzophera pinguis, etc. Among the main diseases is the fungus known as Peacock spot Fusicladium oleagineum .The second most important disease is anthracnose (Colletotrichum acutatum), especially in the Baix Ebre-Montsià area, occurring in the Morrut, Sevillenc, Farga and other varieties. Other pathogens that may affect olives are Pseudomonas savastanoi, Capnodium elaeophilum, Armillaria mellea, Rossellinia necatrix, Verticilium sp., etc.
Currently new plantations are following the practice of super intensive growing. This change of model in growing also has repercussions on the order of pest incidence. The main pest in the early years of formation is Margaronia unionalis. The control of Prays oleae, depending on the variety, may become more significant than Bactrocera oleae at later stages, when the crop is in production. Finally, the incidence of leaf scab is higher in this type of growing than in conventional forms.

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Data protection policy

In accordance with the Organic Law on the Protection of Personal Data 15/1999, of 13 December, Promotora de Exportaciones Catalanas SA (hereinafter PRODECA), whose address is Gran Via de les Corts Catalanes, 620, principal, 08007 Barcelona, with tax reg. no. NIF A58241316, declares that the images contained on the website www.smartfruitcongress.cat are included in a file belonging to PRODECA. The purpose of this file is the promotion, via its website, of the activities conducted by PRODECA – SmartfFruit IPM International Congress.

PRODECA guarantees that you may, at any time, exercise your right to access, rectify, cancel or oppose by writing to the aforesaid postal address, using the reference "PROTECCIÓN DE DATOS - SMARTFRUIT", or to the email address smartfruitcongress@smartfruitcongress.cat.

Specifically, to correctly exercise these rights you must clearly provide the following items in that communication:
- Name, surname(s) and photocopy of National Identity Document or Passport.
- Statement of the purpose of the request.
- Address for notification purposes.
PRODECA also declares that it reserves the right to delete from its website any content that it considers violates current and applicable legislation.

D’acord amb l’article 17.1 de la Llei 19/2014, la ©Generalitat de Catalunya permet la reutilització dels continguts i de les dades sempre que se'n citi la font i la data d'actualització i que no es desnaturalitzi la informació (article 8 de la Llei 37/2007) i també que no es contradigui amb una llicència específica.