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Pome fruit pests: Lepidoptera

Jesús Avilla

Department of Plant Production and Forest Sciences, Agrotecnio, University of Lleida, Spain. avilla@pvcf.udl.cat

The group of Lepidopteran pome fruit pests in the Palearctic region is large and includes species with differing feeding habits: carpophagous species (Cydia pomonella, Cydia molesta); leafminers (Phyllonorycter spp., Leucoptera malifoliella); leafroller moths (Pandemis heparana, Adoxophyes orana), and woodborers (Zeuzera pyrina, Cossus cossus, Synanthedon myopaeformis). The importance of each species depends on the cultivation system (integrated production, organic farming), and has varied over time.

A more rationalized use of plant protection products and an increase in eco-friendly infrastructures has allowed natural enemy populations to grow.

The group of Lepidopteran pome fruit pests in the Palearctic region is large and includes species with differing feeding habits: carpophagous species (Cydia pomonella, Cydia molesta); leafminers (Phyllonorycter spp., Leucoptera malifoliella); leafroller moths (Pandemis heparana, Adoxophyes orana), and woodborers (Zeuzera pyrina, Cossus cossus, Synanthedon myopaeformis). The importance of each species depends on the cultivation system (integrated production, organic farming), and has varied over time.

A more rationalized use of plant protection products and an increase in eco-friendly infrastructures has allowed natural enemy populations to grow. These natural enemies can keep some Lepidopteran pest populations below economic damage thresholds. This is usually the case of leafminers and leafroller moths. Although the pheromones of these species are known, there are no available biotechnical control methods (for example mating disruption or mass trapping), which makes insecticides necessary  when natural enemies are not enough.
The effect of natural enemy populations on other Lepidopteran pome fruit pests is almost always insufficient to control populations. Several significant pest management techniques using semiochemicals (mating disruption, mass trapping, attractants and death) have been developed in the last two decades. Mating disruption is widely used to combat C. pomonella and Z. pyrina, while mass trapping has also been used in some areas for Z. pyrina. 
Cydia pomonella is the key pest of pome fruit trees in the vast majority of apple and pear trees cultivation areas. Control is most successful when carried out over large areas, involving farmers, technical advisors and companies with local operations. Information provided by a network of semiochemical traps (sexual pheromone + a kairomone such as pear ester) can be combined using geostatistical analysis methods and sent weekly to farmers. Mating disruption is far more effective in this way than when it is used in individual orchards, and anti-resistance strategies are more efficient. Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) and insecticides are used to supplement mating disruption measures when necessary. In recent years, new active ingredients have become available.

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In accordance with the Organic Law on the Protection of Personal Data 15/1999, of 13 December, Promotora de Exportaciones Catalanas SA (hereinafter PRODECA), whose address is Gran Via de les Corts Catalanes, 620, principal, 08007 Barcelona, with tax reg. no. NIF A58241316, declares that the images contained on the website www.smartfruitcongress.cat are included in a file belonging to PRODECA. The purpose of this file is the promotion, via its website, of the activities conducted by PRODECA – SmartfFruit IPM International Congress.

PRODECA guarantees that you may, at any time, exercise your right to access, rectify, cancel or oppose by writing to the aforesaid postal address, using the reference "PROTECCIÓN DE DATOS - SMARTFRUIT", or to the email address smartfruitcongress@smartfruitcongress.cat.

Specifically, to correctly exercise these rights you must clearly provide the following items in that communication:
- Name, surname(s) and photocopy of National Identity Document or Passport.
- Statement of the purpose of the request.
- Address for notification purposes.
PRODECA also declares that it reserves the right to delete from its website any content that it considers violates current and applicable legislation.

D’acord amb l’article 17.1 de la Llei 19/2014, la ©Generalitat de Catalunya permet la reutilització dels continguts i de les dades sempre que se'n citi la font i la data d'actualització i que no es desnaturalitzi la informació (article 8 de la Llei 37/2007) i també que no es contradigui amb una llicència específica.