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Drosophila suzukii

Frank G. Zalom

Department of Entomology and Nematology. University of California. Davis, USA

The spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, is a native of Southeast Asia and a pest of berry and stone fruit crops. First reported in California (USA) in August 2008, it is now found throughout much of North America and Europe.

SWD differs from other Drosophila species that primarily infest rotting or fermenting fruit in that it readily attacks undamaged fruit. The female, which lacks the distinctive black wing spots found on the male, has a large, saw-like ovipositor that allows her to cut into ripening fruit to lay her eggs.

The spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, is a native of Southeast Asia and a pest of berry and stone fruit crops. First reported in California (USA) in August 2008, it is now found throughout much of North America and Europe.

SWD differs from other Drosophila species that primarily infest rotting or fermenting fruit in that it readily attacks undamaged fruit. The female, which lacks the distinctive black wing spots found on the male, has a large, saw-like ovipositor that allows her to cut into ripening fruit to lay her eggs. The larvae develop and feed inside the fruit. Like other Drosophila has a short life cycle (one to several weeks depending on temperature), enabling large populations to quickly develop. They are most active at 20°C and activity is dramatically reduced above 30°C.

SWD can be monitored with liquid traps containing apple cider vinegar or a mixture of baker’s yeast, sugar and water. However, these traps will also capture other flies so it is important to correctly identify SWD adults. Insecticides targeting control of the adults and reducing breeding sites are the main control approaches recommended at this time. Treatments are applied when flies are present and just prior to when fruit become suitable for egg-laying. Organophosphates, pyrethroids, and spinosyns are the most effective insecticide classes for SWD control.

SWD poses a particularly strong threat to organic farmers, as there are fewer control tactics available. Infested fruit that remains in the field or orchard and over ripe or fallen fruit in adjacent sites can serve as a food source and allows eggs and larvae to fully develop, serving as a source of more flies. Some non-crop fruit produced by ornamental plants can also be hosts and sources of flies for commercial crops. The list of potential hosts continues to expand.

SWD research is being conducted by many laboratories around the world to better understand its biology and potential for control by non-insecticidal methods. Its genome has been sequenced, and because of its close relationship to the well-studied genetic model organism Drosophila melanogaster, much will be learned through its comparison to that species.

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In accordance with the Organic Law on the Protection of Personal Data 15/1999, of 13 December, Promotora de Exportaciones Catalanas SA (hereinafter PRODECA), whose address is Gran Via de les Corts Catalanes, 620, principal, 08007 Barcelona, with tax reg. no. NIF A58241316, declares that the images contained on the website www.smartfruitcongress.cat are included in a file belonging to PRODECA. The purpose of this file is the promotion, via its website, of the activities conducted by PRODECA – SmartfFruit IPM International Congress.

PRODECA guarantees that you may, at any time, exercise your right to access, rectify, cancel or oppose by writing to the aforesaid postal address, using the reference "PROTECCIÓN DE DATOS - SMARTFRUIT", or to the email address smartfruitcongress@smartfruitcongress.cat.

Specifically, to correctly exercise these rights you must clearly provide the following items in that communication:
- Name, surname(s) and photocopy of National Identity Document or Passport.
- Statement of the purpose of the request.
- Address for notification purposes.
PRODECA also declares that it reserves the right to delete from its website any content that it considers violates current and applicable legislation.

D’acord amb l’article 17.1 de la Llei 19/2014, la ©Generalitat de Catalunya permet la reutilització dels continguts i de les dades sempre que se'n citi la font i la data d'actualització i que no es desnaturalitzi la informació (article 8 de la Llei 37/2007) i també que no es contradigui amb una llicència específica.