FEATURED INFORMATION

Grapevine phytoplasma diseases

Assumpció Batlle, Amparo Laviña

IRTA - Institute for Food and Agricultural Research and Technology. Department of Agriculture, Livestock, Fisheries, Food and the Environment. Government of Catalonia

Phytoplasmas are non-cultivable prokaryotes, which are transmitted efficiently and persistently by insects belonging mainly to the Cicadelidae, Fulgoridae, Cercopidae and Psyllidae families, as well as by vegetative propagation. All phytoplasmas cause similar symptoms in grapevine; the severity and type of symptoms depends mainly on the vector and the affected cultivar. The most characteristic symptoms are leaf curl, impaired fruit development, and incomplete lignification in autumn. Phytoplasmas cause chlorosis along the leaf veins in white grape varieties and a reddish mosaic pattern along the leaf veins in red grape varieties.

Phytoplasmas are non-cultivable prokaryotes, which are transmitted efficiently and persistently by insects belonging mainly to the Cicadelidae, Fulgoridae, Cercopidae and Psyllidae families, as well as by vegetative propagation. All phytoplasmas cause similar symptoms in grapevine; the severity and type of symptoms depends mainly on the vector and the affected cultivar. The most characteristic symptoms are leaf curl, impaired fruit development, and incomplete lignification in autumn. Phytoplasmas cause chlorosis along the leaf veins in white grape varieties and a reddish mosaic pattern along the leaf veins in red grape varieties. Flavescence and the more severe isolates of others phytoplasmas ultimately result in plant death.

In grapevine, one of the most destructive diseases caused by phytoplasma is Flavescence dorée (Candidatus Phytoplasma vitis). This was declared a quarantine disease by the European Union (EPPO; A2 List, 9/2010) and has been identified in several countries in the Mediterranean basin, causing the greatest damage in the vineyards of southern France. Control of the vector of this disease, the leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus, the development of sensitive diagnostic techniques and thermotherapy treatments of plant material, and the uprooting of infected plants were among the measures taken in France to prevent the dispersion of this disease, which affected over 100,000 hectares between 1991 and 1993. The disease was identified in Spain in 1996 in vineyards in the province of Gerona, not far from the affected areas of southern France, and the vector can be found along the entire coast of Catalonia. However, the eradication plan put in place by the Department of Plant Protection of Catalonia has led to the almost complete eradication of the disease. Another of the most widespread phytoplasmas in the wine-producing regions of Europe is "stolbur" or Ca.P.solani, the causative agent of black wood disease, or "Bois noir". The epidemiology of this disease is complex, as the life cycles of the phytoplasma and the vector take place in different host plants, mainly Convolvulus arvensis and Urtica dioica. This phytoplasma is widespread in the vineyards of France, Germany, Italy, Israel, Croatia, Slovenia and Greece. In Spain it has been identified in Aragon, Catalonia, Navarra and Rioja Alta. The main vector of stolbur in central Europe is the cixiid Hyalesthes obsoletus, although another cixiid, Reptalus panzeri, has also been identified as a vector in Serbia, Hungary and Italy.

Other phytoplasmas belonging to the "Aster yellows" and "X-disease" groups have also been identified in severa countries including Italy and Israel. In recent years there has also been an increase in Pierce's disease in vine crops in the United States, mainly in Florida. This disease is caused by Xylella fastidiosa, a xylemlimited bacterium (XLB), and is transmitted non-persistently by insects of the families Cercopidae and Cicadellidae. This bacterium has been identified in over 80 plant species and has expanded in the U.S. since the introduction of the vector Homalodisca coagulata in orange trees imported from Brazil. While the main vector is not found in ently identified in olive crops in Italy, and represents a threat to a variety of crops of the Mediterranean basin, including grapevine.

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In accordance with the Organic Law on the Protection of Personal Data 15/1999, of 13 December, Promotora de Exportaciones Catalanas SA (hereinafter PRODECA), whose address is Gran Via de les Corts Catalanes, 620, principal, 08007 Barcelona, with tax reg. no. NIF A58241316, declares that the images contained on the website www.smartfruitcongress.cat are included in a file belonging to PRODECA. The purpose of this file is the promotion, via its website, of the activities conducted by PRODECA – SmartfFruit IPM International Congress.

PRODECA guarantees that you may, at any time, exercise your right to access, rectify, cancel or oppose by writing to the aforesaid postal address, using the reference "PROTECCIÓN DE DATOS - SMARTFRUIT", or to the email address smartfruitcongress@smartfruitcongress.cat.

Specifically, to correctly exercise these rights you must clearly provide the following items in that communication:
- Name, surname(s) and photocopy of National Identity Document or Passport.
- Statement of the purpose of the request.
- Address for notification purposes.
PRODECA also declares that it reserves the right to delete from its website any content that it considers violates current and applicable legislation.

D’acord amb l’article 17.1 de la Llei 19/2014, la ©Generalitat de Catalunya permet la reutilització dels continguts i de les dades sempre que se'n citi la font i la data d'actualització i que no es desnaturalitzi la informació (article 8 de la Llei 37/2007) i també que no es contradigui amb una llicència específica.