FEATURED INFORMATION

Integrated Pest Management Strategies in table grapes

Alfonso Lucas Espadas

Sanidad Vegetal. Región de Murcia

Approximately 14,500 hectares in Valencia, Murcia and Andalusia are under table grape cultivation, although recent years have seen the development of plantations in other regions of Spain, including Extremadura and Aragón. There has also been an increase in the use of seedless grape varieties in recent years, at the expense oftraditional, seeded varieties. The region of Murcia has significantly increased the land area under grape cultivation, based on the market outlook for grape exporters in the region, and has tailored the varieties grown in line with consumer demands (seedless grapes, flavored grapes, etc.).

Approximately 14,500 hectares in Valencia, Murcia and Andalusia are under table grape cultivation, although recent years have seen the development of plantations in other regions of Spain, including Extremadura and Aragón. There has also been an increase in the use of seedless grape varieties in recent years, at the expense oftraditional, seeded varieties. The region of Murcia has significantly increased the land area under grape cultivation, based on the market outlook for grape exporters in the region, and has tailored the varieties grown in line with consumer demands (seedless grapes, flavored grapes, etc.).

The control of crop diseases under Integrated Pest Management (IPM) guidelines began at the practical level in the early 1990s, with the incorporation of Integrated Production standards in most regions cultivating table grapes. Moreover, in the last 6-8 years, there have been significant advances in the study and development of biological and technological control practices for several important pests, whose detrimental effects on crops necessitated extensive plant protection treatments, which in turn affected profitability. The demands of retail chains, the tightening of legislation regulating plant protection products and their residues, and advances in the training and knowledge of farmers has in recent years led to clear and decisive progress towards the widespread application of many of these techniques, allowing the marketing of the most competitive and attractive fruit. In our talk we will provide a brief overview of crop pests and their control using IPM strategies.

We will discuss the case of the grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana) and its mass control using a mating disruption technique, and that of the mealybug (Planococcus citri and P. ficus), which can be controlled by biological methods through the release of the parasitoid Anagyrus pseudococci and the predator Cryptolaemus montroucieri, or in the case of P. ficus, by a combination of biological control and mating disruption. We will also look at the opportunities offered by mass trapping using blue sticky traps in combination with aggregation pheromone lures to combat thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis). Another pest that is now fully controlled by technological means is the fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata), a major pest of table grapes, which serve as an intermediate host between fruit and citrus plants, at least in the region of Murcia. Currently, mass trapping and attract-and-kill approaches are more than sufficient for effective control, and are essential given the current lack of authorized active substances in the pesticide registry for use on this crop.

The threat to cultivation posed by mites has led to the development of biological control strategies involving the mass release of phytoseiids (Amblyseius californicus, A. swirskii), although the best means of mite control is to respect the local auxiliary fauna, which can usually control this pest without difficulty. The feasibility of using these types of solutions to treat the diseases themselves is more complicated, but much research has focused on the development of alternative solutions, such as the use of sulfur in different formats (e.g., wettable, powder), as well as products containing Ampelomyces quisqualis, Bacillus subtilis, etc. In these cases, proper crop management is very important, and helps greatly to avoid major problems with common crop diseases, including powdery mildew (Uncinula necator), mildew (Plasmopara viticola), and gray rot (Botrytis cinerea). In all cases, a good knowledge of the enemy and its behavior is the key to successful control.

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PRODECA also reserves the right to delete from its website any content that it considers violates current and applicable legislation.

D’acord amb l’article 17.1 de la Llei 19/2014, la ©Generalitat de Catalunya permet la reutilització dels continguts i de les dades sempre que se'n citi la font i la data d'actualització i que no es desnaturalitzi la informació (article 8 de la Llei 37/2007) i també que no es contradigui amb una llicència específica.

Data protection policy

In accordance with the Organic Law on the Protection of Personal Data 15/1999, of 13 December, Promotora de Exportaciones Catalanas SA (hereinafter PRODECA), whose address is Gran Via de les Corts Catalanes, 620, principal, 08007 Barcelona, with tax reg. no. NIF A58241316, declares that the images contained on the website www.smartfruitcongress.cat are included in a file belonging to PRODECA. The purpose of this file is the promotion, via its website, of the activities conducted by PRODECA – SmartfFruit IPM International Congress.

PRODECA guarantees that you may, at any time, exercise your right to access, rectify, cancel or oppose by writing to the aforesaid postal address, using the reference "PROTECCIÓN DE DATOS - SMARTFRUIT", or to the email address smartfruitcongress@smartfruitcongress.cat.

Specifically, to correctly exercise these rights you must clearly provide the following items in that communication:
- Name, surname(s) and photocopy of National Identity Document or Passport.
- Statement of the purpose of the request.
- Address for notification purposes.
PRODECA also declares that it reserves the right to delete from its website any content that it considers violates current and applicable legislation.

D’acord amb l’article 17.1 de la Llei 19/2014, la ©Generalitat de Catalunya permet la reutilització dels continguts i de les dades sempre que se'n citi la font i la data d'actualització i que no es desnaturalitzi la informació (article 8 de la Llei 37/2007) i també que no es contradigui amb una llicència específica.