FEATURED INFORMATION

Invasive fruit flies threat the European fruit production

Nikos T. Papadopoulos

Laboratory of Entomology, Department of Agriculture, Crop Production and Rural Environment, University of Thessaly, Fytokou St., Volos, 38446, Greece

Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) include major pests of fresh fruits and vegetables for many tropical and temperate countries. Several fruit fly species are listed among the most aggressive invasive pests that affect fruit trading at regional and global scale. Fruit-fly invasion threatens fruit production in Europe through both range expansion and long-distance invasion events. There are three old residents of tephritids in Europe with great economic interest: the Mediterranean fruit fly (or medfly), Ceratitis capitata, the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, and the European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi.

Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) include major pests of fresh fruits and vegetables for many tropical and temperate countries. Several fruit fly species are listed among the most aggressive invasive pests that affect fruit trading at regional and global scale. Fruit-fly invasion threatens fruit production in Europe through both range expansion and long-distance invasion events. There are three old residents of tephritids in Europe with great economic interest: the Mediterranean fruit fly (or medfly), Ceratitis capitata, the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, and the European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi. Both the medfly and the olive fly are widespread along the Mediterranean coast, whereasR. cerasi is distributed all over Europe. In recent times the medfly has expanded its geographic range to northern, cooler areas, such as the coastal areas of the northern Adriatic Sea. Interestingly, the medfly has been repeatedly detected in central European countries over the last few years, breaching traditional climatic barriers to its presence. In addition to medfly range expansion, increased fruit trading and human mobility impose huge propagule pressures in Europe from tropical and temperate fruit flies. Approximately 30% of all insect pests intercepted in European ports of entry are fruit flies. The risk of fruit fly invasion increases dramatically considering the wide distribution of Bactrocera dorsalis in the Sub-Saharan Africa, the establishment of B. zonata in Egypt and Libya and frequent detections in Israel, as well as the establishment of Dacus ciliatus in southern Israel and Jordan. The slow westward dispersion of Myopardalis pardalina from central to western Asia and its recent detection in eastern Mediterranean countries makes it another species of interest that might invade Europe soon. The list of invasive fruit flies is further increased considering the establishment and range expansion of Rhagoletis completa and R. cingulata in central Europe and northern Mediterranean countries.

The current paper analyzes fruit fly invasion events and associated risks, and discusses management decisions for European growers considering multispecies area-wide integrated pest management strategies.

Featured highlights

Legal notice

In accordance with the Organic Law on the Protection of Personal Data 15/1999, of 13 December, Promotora de Exportaciones Catalanas SA (hereinafter PRODECA), whose address is Gran Via de les Corts Catalanes, 620, principal, 08007 Barcelona, with tax reg. no. NIF A58241316, declares that the images contained on the website www.smartfruitcongress.cat are included in a file belonging to PRODECA. The purpose of this file is to promote the activities conducted by PRODECA – SmartFruit IPM International Congress via its website.

PRODECA guarantees that you may, at any time, exercise your right to access, rectify, cancel or oppose by writing to the aforesaid postal address, using the reference "PROTECCIÓN DE DATOS - SMARTFRUIT", or to the email address smartfruitcongress@smartfruitcongress.cat.

Specifically, to correctly exercise these rights you must clearly provide the following items in that communication:
- Name, surname(s) and photocopy of National Identity Document or Passport.
- Statement of the purpose of the request.
- Address for notification purposes.
PRODECA also reserves the right to delete from its website any content that it considers violates current and applicable legislation.

D’acord amb l’article 17.1 de la Llei 19/2014, la ©Generalitat de Catalunya permet la reutilització dels continguts i de les dades sempre que se'n citi la font i la data d'actualització i que no es desnaturalitzi la informació (article 8 de la Llei 37/2007) i també que no es contradigui amb una llicència específica.

Data protection policy

In accordance with the Organic Law on the Protection of Personal Data 15/1999, of 13 December, Promotora de Exportaciones Catalanas SA (hereinafter PRODECA), whose address is Gran Via de les Corts Catalanes, 620, principal, 08007 Barcelona, with tax reg. no. NIF A58241316, declares that the images contained on the website www.smartfruitcongress.cat are included in a file belonging to PRODECA. The purpose of this file is the promotion, via its website, of the activities conducted by PRODECA – SmartfFruit IPM International Congress.

PRODECA guarantees that you may, at any time, exercise your right to access, rectify, cancel or oppose by writing to the aforesaid postal address, using the reference "PROTECCIÓN DE DATOS - SMARTFRUIT", or to the email address smartfruitcongress@smartfruitcongress.cat.

Specifically, to correctly exercise these rights you must clearly provide the following items in that communication:
- Name, surname(s) and photocopy of National Identity Document or Passport.
- Statement of the purpose of the request.
- Address for notification purposes.
PRODECA also declares that it reserves the right to delete from its website any content that it considers violates current and applicable legislation.

D’acord amb l’article 17.1 de la Llei 19/2014, la ©Generalitat de Catalunya permet la reutilització dels continguts i de les dades sempre que se'n citi la font i la data d'actualització i que no es desnaturalitzi la informació (article 8 de la Llei 37/2007) i també que no es contradigui amb una llicència específica.