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Bactrocera oleae: current possibilities and prospects for eco-sustainable control

Bruno Bagnoli

Dipartimento per la Innovazione nei Sistemi Biologici Agroalimentari e Forestali (DIBAF) Università degli Studi della Tuscia

Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera Tephritidae), is the major pest of commercial olives worldwide. The species owning a reproductive strategy of type "r" is able to give place to real demographic explosions not adjustable by natural resistance. In fact prolificity, longevity and mobility of adults provide a high biotic potential to the species, which in the presence of food sources and suitable climatic conditions is able to multiply massively his population through several generations per year. In olive growing areas of the Mediterranean basin, B.

Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera Tephritidae), is the major pest of commercial olives worldwide. The species owning a reproductive strategy of type "r" is able to give place to real demographic explosions not adjustable by natural resistance. In fact prolificity, longevity and mobility of adults provide a high biotic potential to the species, which in the presence of food sources and suitable climatic conditions is able to multiply massively his population through several generations per year. In olive growing areas of the Mediterranean basin, B. oleae overwinters in the pupal stage in the soil or as adults, and in the spring it can accomplish a first generation on the olives possibly remaining on the plants from an incomplete harvest. From late June to December, the number of generations is directly dependent on the temperature, the species having a lower thermal threshold of 8.99 °C and a thermal constant of development of 389.01 DD. In the Mediterranean area the species is mainly but not sufficiently limited by few chalcidoids, as generic ectophagous parasitoids, and a braconid, as endophagous parasitoid, long studied without any practical success to enhance the biological control of the pest. The improvement of the tephritid control finds its mainstay in monitoring of the adult and preimaginal population dynamics. In this regard, also a refinement of predictive models based on climate and biological data is significant. The new guidelines of plant protection legislation are imposing severe but right restrictions on the use of pesticides, and are determining a convergence of the methods used in conventional agriculture to those allowed in organic farming. However to date no strategy is suitable to respond jointly to the requirements of efficacy, environmental compatibility and economic sustainability. Waiting for innovative approaches, such as those relating to biological control, bacterial symbiosis, and semiochemicals in feeding and reproductive behaviour, can find concrete and positive achievements, the wise application of the principles of integrated protection in a logic of Area-Wide Pest Management, is the most advanced solution.

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In accordance with the Organic Law on the Protection of Personal Data 15/1999, of 13 December, Promotora de Exportaciones Catalanas SA (hereinafter PRODECA), whose address is Gran Via de les Corts Catalanes, 620, principal, 08007 Barcelona, with tax reg. no. NIF A58241316, declares that the images contained on the website www.smartfruitcongress.cat are included in a file belonging to PRODECA. The purpose of this file is the promotion, via its website, of the activities conducted by PRODECA – SmartfFruit IPM International Congress.

PRODECA guarantees that you may, at any time, exercise your right to access, rectify, cancel or oppose by writing to the aforesaid postal address, using the reference "PROTECCIÓN DE DATOS - SMARTFRUIT", or to the email address smartfruitcongress@smartfruitcongress.cat.

Specifically, to correctly exercise these rights you must clearly provide the following items in that communication:
- Name, surname(s) and photocopy of National Identity Document or Passport.
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PRODECA also declares that it reserves the right to delete from its website any content that it considers violates current and applicable legislation.

D’acord amb l’article 17.1 de la Llei 19/2014, la ©Generalitat de Catalunya permet la reutilització dels continguts i de les dades sempre que se'n citi la font i la data d'actualització i que no es desnaturalitzi la informació (article 8 de la Llei 37/2007) i també que no es contradigui amb una llicència específica.